Religion and Philosophy in Chinese Calligraphy – The Impact of Neo-Confucianism on Calligraphy: Cultural Identity and Emulation


Neo-Confucianism – Updating the Classics, New Perspectives

By the Song Dynasty, the Confucian classics were almost a millennia old. As a result, especially when it came to enacting filial rituals, the standards of proper conduct were exceedingly difficult to follow adequately. Technologies, social customs and the cultural context in general that the Confucians were engaging with in their pursuit of moral refinement had all changed to such an extent that certain parts of the Confucian canon were either impossible to follow or had slipped into the obscurity of archaism.

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History of Chinese Calligraphy – Modern Period: Democratization of Literacy and Calligraphy During Ming Dynasty (明朝/Ming Chao/Ming Ch’ao)


The Ming Dynasty (明朝/Ming Chao/Ming Ch’ao): Steps Toward Modernity

With the collapse of Mongol rule  in 1368, the Han people were free to once again assert their dominance in China. The Ming dynasty was thus a period during which Chinese culture was celebrated and developed in order to recapture the glories of the Song and Tang. This new-found enthusiasm for a Chinese culture was coupled with unprecedented influences, both from without and within.

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