18 Kingdoms

A period immediately following the demise of the Qin wherein 18 separate nations vied for control of the former Empire. Ultimately, the nation of Han would succeed in forming the next dynasty.


The state of the Ink being absorbed by the paper.


A traditional format for the Chinese arts in which numerous small works are bound together into a book for private viewing. Albums often served as gifts between colleagues and were collected as luxury goods.

An Lushan Rebellion

A rebellion of Tang generals against the state, lasting from 753 to 763 CE. Named for the surnames of the leading rebels, it is considered one of the bloodiest wars of the Medieval world.

An Shi Zhi Luan / 安史之乱

Chinese Pinyin and translation for An Lushan Rebellion.

Archaic Scripts

Refers to Chinese writing in the style of inscriptions of the pre-dynastic period. There will be little or no evidence of ink and brush technique.

Axe cut stroke

Painting method for the depiction of rocky surfaces. The brush is held in an angular way and moved quickly over the paper, just as if “hitting” it with an axe.

Ba Yue Tie / 八月贴

A calligraphic work of Zhang Zhi, known in English as the Eighth Month Note.